Moreover, electrochemical treatments mediated via carbon electrodes can also provoke the permeabilization of the cells to extracellular materials and lead to complete eradication of the persisters. These findings, corroborated by DNA microarray analysis, reveal that DC treatments have profound effects on the physiology of persister cells, altering the regulation of genes involved in antibiotic resistance, pyocin-related functions, and SOS response. The safety and efficacy of ECCP is further tested in co-culture models with human epithelial cells and P. aeruginosa PAO1 and in rabbit model of sinus infections. Overall, the study aims to improve the understanding of the electrophysiology of bacterial persister cells, and provided new insight for designing novel systems to effectively control infections associated with biofilms and persister cells.

The following images illustrate an electrochemical treatment of bacterial cells. The treatments disrupt the membrane functions of the cells and render them susceptible to antibiotics.